Updated (partial) on December 7, 2012
Three years on after Hong Kong's cession to Britain, the colonial government felt the need (I know not why) to expand the British contingent on the island by allowing persons of other nationalities to be naturalized as British subjects, as a result, an ordinance, (Ordinance No.10 of 1845) named Aliens - Naturalization Ordinance, was enacted on October 1, 1845. A naturalized person enjoyed, only within the confines of Hong Kong, the privileges typically conferred to a British subject. The actual process of naturalization could not have been simpler: anyone already settled in Hong Kong or was about to do so, who had taken and subscribed the oath of allegiance before a magistrate would become naturalized, subject only to the approval of the Governor. And, H.E.'s approval was conditioned on: 1.) the applicant must either be a lessee of Crown land (or other types of real properties owned by the Crown) paying no less than ten pounds a year to the colonial government, or a person who had given more than two years public service (I was unsure if this meant a government employee, or a person rendering community service, or both were acceptable); and 2.) the payment of ten dollars; and, naturally, any other unwritten conditions that the Governor could impose at his discretion. Either no one was interested or the Governors were really picky, the first successful naturalization came about in 1880, or thirty fives years later. I must however qualify that I am still at a very early stage of reaching the subject matter; new (old) information may turn up anytime to show that it didn't take the government 35 years to crank this up.
I know how stupid I sound, but our Aliens – Naturalization Ordinance was two years ahead of Britain's Naturalization Act of 1847 (CAP83), which declared that colonial legislatures had power to impart all or any of the privileges of naturalization to be “exercised and enjoyed within the respective limits of such colonies or possessions respectively”. I've looked up the immediate previous naturalization act, Act 1844 (CAP66), but found no relevant provisions, I think, therefore, (CAP83) was the first such act that empowered colonies to make local naturalization available.
As can be found in the following roster, a total of 66 applications was approved between 1880 and 1900, all except two had completed the naturalization. The two unconfirmed cases were those of Pang Im (#5) and Hu Wa (#13). On March 25, 1901, an ordinance (Ordinance No.9 of 1901), named Naturalized Persons Ordinance, 1901 was enacted, repealing all past ordinances for the naturalization of persons as British subjects in Hong Kong in preparation for a new edition of the Statute Laws. All persons granted naturalization, however, continued to be British subjects within Hong Kong. There were several other ordinances enacted between 1845 and 1901 regarding local naturalization, I just need time to digest them.
Typical Text of an Ordinance for Naturalization (in use between 1880 and 1900)
(Updated on December 6, 2012)
An Ordinance for the naturalization of [name of person].Anyone interested in reading the Promissory Oaths Ordinance may check out these link: http://oelawhk.lib.hku.hk/items/show/576.
Whereas [name of person] has petitioned to be naturalized as a British Subject within the limits of this Colony, and whereas it is expedient that he should be so naturalized; Be it enacted by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-
[name of person], shall be, and he is hereby naturalized a British subject within this Colony, and shall enjoy within this Colony, but not elsewhere, all the rights, advantages and privileges of a British subject, on his taking the oath of allegiance under the provisions of the Promissory Oaths Ordinance, 1869.
I just found the Chinese version of the ordinance:References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, April 22, 1882
Roster of Naturalized British Subjects in Hong Kong
(listed according to the enactment dates of the ordinances)
1. Ernest John Eitel (German), Ordinance No.4 of 1880 (August, 31, 1880), naturalized on August 31, 1880.
2. Fung Ming-shan (Chinese), Ordinance No.5 of 1881 (June 24, 1881), naturalized on September 14, 1882.
The first Chinese resident granted British subject status in Hong Kong, Fung Ming-shan, or Feng Mingshan (p), 馮明珊 (b. unknown - d.1898), alias Fung Po-hai 馮普熙, alias Fung Chew 馮照, was a native of Dongguan, Guangdong 廣東東莞. Fung attended St. Paul's College 聖保羅書院 in Hong Kong, and most probably was a classmate of Ng Choy 伍才, a.k.a. Wu Tingfang 伍廷芳, who graduated in 1858.3. Wong She-tai (Chinese), Ordinance No.6 of 1881 (June 24, 1881), naturalized on March 24, 1883.
Fung was comprador for A.G. Hogg & Co., which was, among other things, the Hong Kong agent for the New York scent products manufacturer, Lanman & Kemp . Fung later became the comprador for the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, London and China 有利銀行 (renamed Mercantile Bank of India, Ltd. in 1893 when it lost the royal charter). He was listed in 1874 as a manager of the General Chinese Printing Office 中華印務總局, which published Hong Kong's first newspaper in the Chinese language, the Tsun-wan Yat-po 循環日報, or Xunhuan Ribao (p), or Universal Circulating Herald (a name commonly used by Westerners in Hong Kong; the newspaper did not have an official English name). Fung was one of the founders of Tung Wah Hospital (founded in 1870); he became a director in 1872, and chairman in 1879. He was the leader of the group of sixty two prominent Chinese residents who signed the petition to the government in 1878 that led to the establishment of Po Leung Kuk (formed in the same year). The initial costs and expenses of Po Leung Kok were borne by Fung and other members of the Kuk's committee, while the costs of providing food was borne by Tung Wah Hospital.
 The forefather of Lanman & Kemp, New York parfumeur Robert I. Murray, introduced in 1808 the company's most distinguished product, Florida Water 花露水, as an American interpretation of Eau de Cologne (Eau de Cologne was launched in Cologne by Italian parfumeur Giovanni Maria Farina in 1709.) Florida Water remains in production today using the original 1808 formula. Incidentally, Hong Kong has it own version of Florida Water, which was introduced by House of Kwong Sang Hong 廣生堂 in 1898 under the brand name of Two Girls 雙妹嚜; the product is still available today. No idea which formula was or is in use.References:
- Faure, David (Ed.), A Documentary History of Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1997.
- Lanman & Kemp Collection, Accession 2328, Wilmington, Delaware: Hagley Museum and Library [internet]
- Sinn, Elizabeth, Power and Charity, a Chinese Merchant Elite in Colonial Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2003.
- Wagner, Rudolf G., Joining the Global Public: World, Image, and City in Early Chinese Newspapers 1870-1910, Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007.
4. Shi Shang-kai (Chinese), Ordinance No.7 of 1881 (June 24, 1881), naturalized on March 24, 1883.
Shi Shang-kai 施笙階 was a compatriot of Fung Ming-shan, i.e. a native of Dongguan. Nothing much was written about him, except that he, Fung, and two other Dongguaners, Lo Lai-ping 盧禮屏 and Tse Tat-shing 謝達盛, were the title authors of the petition to governor John Pope Hennessy on November 8, 1878 that led to the establishment of the Po Leung Kuk.5. Pang Im (Chinese), Ordinance No.8 of 1881 (June 24, 1881).
- Po Leung Kuk [internet].
6. Ip Him-kwong (Chinese), Ordinance No.9 of 1881 (June 24, 1881), naturalized on March 24, 1883.
7. Un Man-tsoi (Chinese), Ordinance No.10 of 1881 (June 24, 1881), naturalized on March 24, 1883.
8. Chan Teng-cho (Chinese), Ordinance No.2 of 1882 (February 22, 1882), naturalized on December 6, 1883.
9. Ng Li-hing (Chinese), Ordinance No.3 of 1882 (February 22, 1882), naturalized on December 6, 1883.
10. Yau Chong Peng (Chinese), Ordinance No.4 of 1882 (February 22, 1882), naturalized on December 6, 1883.
11. Chan Mun Wing (Chinese), Ordinance No.5 of 1882 (February 22, 1882), naturalized on December 6, 1883.
12. William Quincey (Chinese), Ordinance No.10 of 1882 (April 27, 1882), naturalized on March 24, 1883. (Updated on December 7, 2012)
13. Hu Wa 許華 (Chinese), Ordinance No.11 of 1882 (April 27, 1882).
Quincey, the first Chinese police inspector in Hong Kong, had been with the Hong Kong Police Force since 1870. He was listed as a police inspector and was paid $720 a year in salary in 1884; he was later promoted to the post of detective inspector. On March 13, 1887, Quincey shot and killed by mistake a Chinese bystander, when he fired his revolver at a criminal he was pursuing, but failed to overtake. He was kicked out of the Police Force for corruption in August 1897. He was hired by the Taotai 道台 (a position similar to that of a mayor) of Shanghai , Tsai Gun, or Cai Jun (p) 蔡鈞, in 1898 to head a modern police force there. He arrived in December 1898 (by that time, Tsai had already been removed from office) with five Indian ex-policemen, or ex-army, including a Jemadar Fakeer Mahomed (I am quite sure he was not a fakir.). Quincey was put in charge of fifty Chinese constables.
William Quincey (3rd from left, back row), ca.1885
source: Voices from the Past: Hong Kong, 1842-1918
The Hongkong Gambling Scandal (The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, September 2, 1897, p.2) Three Police Officers Dismissed.References:
A private inquiry has been in progress for several days in the Superintendent's Office at Victoria Gaol into the charges against the European officers of the Hongkong Police who were suspended from duty at the commencement of the inquiry into the Gambling Scandal. The inquiry has been conducted by Hon. F.H. May, Captain Superintendent of Police, and Mr. H.L. Dennys, Crown Solicitor. On the 24th Inspector Baker was dismissed from the Police Force for gross neglect of duty for not discovering and reporting a gambling house at No.2 Wa Lane. This is the gambling house which Captain Superintendent of Police raided along with Acting Chief Inspector Mackie, when the books of a large Chinese gambling syndicate were discovered, which contained the names of several Police officers. Inspector Baker, who was in charge of this district, has been in the Police Force over twenty-four years. It is announced that Detective-Sergeant Holt has also been dismissed from the Force. The following day (the 25th) the Hon. F.H. May, Captain Superintendent of Police, ordered the dismissal from the Police Force of Detective-Inspector Quincey for gross neglect of duty in not discovering and in not reporting a common gaming house at No.2, Wa Lane.
- Clare, J.D. (Ed.), Shanghai by Night and Day, Shanghai: Shanghai Mercury, Ltd., 1902.
- The Hongkong Gambling Scandal, The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, September 2, 1897, p.2.
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, April 22, 1882
- London and China Telegraph, April 18, 1887, China, Hong Kong.
- Minutes of the Legislative Council of Wednesday, March 5, 1884.
- Tsai, Jung-Fang, The 1884 Hong Kong Insurrection: Anti-Imperialist Popular Protest During the Sino-French War, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, Vol. 16, No. 1: January - March 1984.
14. Ho Shun 何順 (Chinese), Ordinance No.12 of 1882 (April 27, 1882), naturalized on May 15, 1883.
15. Lai Fong (Chinese), Ordinance No.13 of 1883 (December 28, 1883), naturalized on January 4, 1884.
16. Januario Antonio de Carvalho (Portuguese), Ordinance No.14 of 1883 (December 28, 1883), naturalized on December 31, 1883.
Januario Antonio de Carvalho (b.1830, Macau - d. December 1900, Hong Kong) came to Hong Kong in the 1850s. He was listed in 1859 as an accountant of the Colonial Treasurer's Office, and rose to become chief cashier. On October 7, 1878, he was nominated by governor John Pope Hennessy to assume the post of acting Colonial Treasurer, which bundled with a seat at the Legislative Council. The appointment was met with indignation from within the government as the appointment was considered an unjust rocket-through-the-rank promotion; it also outraged the British contingent as Carvalho was not even a British subject, in an era where senior positions in the government were only filled by Britons, not even naturalized British subjects. Hennessy would have ignored the strongest of protects and went ahead with it, except that it was impossible to do so on technicality ground; Carvalho, being an alien, could not take the oath of allegiance required to complete his appointment. Henessy instead made him a Justice of the Peace later in the same year. Carvalho petitioned for and was granted naturalization nearly two years after the departure of Hennessy.
Portrait of J. A. de Carvalho, Hong Kong, 1886Photo on cabinet card, by Afong PhotoNational Library of Australia
Carvalho married Mariana Joaquina Rosa-Braga in 1856. They had three (or four) children: Josefina Maria de Carvalho (b.1858-d. August 8, 1891, Hong Kong), Maria Pulqueria de Carvalho (b. October 27, 1860 - d. unknown), and Edmundo Artur de Carvalho (b. 1862, Hong Kong- d. year unknown, England). Edmundo followed his father's footsteps and went to work for the Colonial Treasurer's Office; he retired as the chief cashier. Carlos Francisco Xavier de Carvalho (b. April 3, 1867, Hong Kong – d. year unknown, London) might be Carvalho's youngest son. Carlos was clerk of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. He married Guilhermina Hermila Ribeiro Cabral (Nina) in Hong Kong on September 12, 1906. Guilhermina was the daughter of João Albino Ribeiro Cabral, the tesoureiro-geral da província (Treasurer General) of Macau (1896-1898). Both Edmundo and Carlos retired to England.
Marcus A. de Carvalho, Carvalho's elder brother, and his wife owned and lived in a house with extensive grounds he named Craigengower on Caine Road. The house was later leased to a W.D. Braidwood, who ran, as headmaster, the Victoria English School on the premises. In 1894, Braidwood converted a turfed piece of ground in Bonham Road near Breezy Path into a cricket field, and name it after Craigengower, which in time evolved into the Craigengower Cricket Club. The present-day club quarters is located in Happy Valley.
- Conjunto Documental dos Processos de Contas Gerências de 1824 a 1938, Tribunal de contas (Court of Auditors), Portugal [internet].
- Ferreira , Márcia Rosa dos Reis, Cultura e sociabilidades em Macau nos finais de oitocentos: o Eco Macaense (1893-1899), FLUP, 2006.
- Government Library, Macau [internet].
- Hongkong Directory with List of Foreign Residents in China, Hong Kong: American Press, 1859.
- MacKeown, P. Kevin, Early China Coast Meteorology, the Role of Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2011.
- National Library of Australia [internet].
- PhPGedView [internet].
- Wright, Arnold (Ed.), Twentieth Century Impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and Other Treaty Ports of China, London: Lloyd's Greater Britain Publishing Co., Ltd., 1908.
17. Wong Shing (Chinese), Ordinance No.15 of 1883 (December 28, 1883), naturalized on December 31, 1883.
18. Henrique Joaquim Rodrigues (Portuguese), Ordinance No.16 of 1883 (December 28, 1883), naturalized on January 4, 1884.
19. William Doberck (Danish), Ordinance No.2 of 1884 (March 26, 1884), naturalized on August 13, 1884.
20. Tseung Sz-kai (Chinese), Ordinance No.5 of 1884 (April 2, 1884), naturalized on August 27, 1884.
21. Chan Kwok-ying 陳國英 (Chinese), Ordinance No.20 of 1887 (June 2, 1887), naturalized on September 20, 1887.
Chan owned and ran Hip Hing Hong, an importer of Siamese goods, at 132, Bonham Strand 文咸街. He was a native of Tsinghoi, Chenghai (p), in Chiu Chau, Chaozhou (p), Guangdong 廣東省潮州市澄海縣.1888
22. Fritz Adolph Friccius Grobien (German), Ordinance No.6 of 1888, naturalized on February 21, 1888.
Fritz Adolph Friccius Grobien (b. March, 1842, Ellerau Bolstern - d. April 16, 1917, Hamburg, Germany) was a partner of Sander & Co. 山打洋行, a German firm in Hong Kong carrying on the business of trading and ship's agency. Sander & Co. was founded in 1864 by a F. Sander in Hong Kong; the firm was renamed Sander, Wieler & Co. after a merger in 1898 with Wieler & Co 威喇洋行. The firm was was confiscated by the Hong Kong government during the Great War. I found no records that indicated when Grobien left Hong Kong.23. Hillune Loo Ngawk, alias Loo Kiu Fung (Chinese), Ordinance No.7 of 1888, naturalized on March 5, 1888.
Grobien took HSBC to court in 1873, the damage was $21,000 he lost allegedly due to the Bank's mishandling the deposit of a check. On January 31, 1873, Grobien, through a stock broker named Reimann of the firm Melchers & Co., closed a shares transaction with a man named Koenig, who settle the payment with a check for $21,000 that was later deposited by Grobien's staff into HSBC. The check was marked good and in the usual fashion a counterfoil of the paying-in slip was given by the Bank. Approximately two hours later, HSBC returned the check to Grobien with a note, “Refer to drawer”. Grobien got hold of Koenig, who promised that he would go to the bank to sort out the matter the following morning. Grobien then had the check resent to the Bank. Came the next morning, when Grobien returned to his office he again found the check on his desk, with a note from the bank cashier saying how sorry he was having to return the check and that Koenig did not show up in the Bank as promised. Koenig, who was previously jailed for forgery, disappeared from Hong Kong. Grobien blamed HSBC for his loss and initiated the litigation. Unfortunately, I was unable to find the follow up story to see what had transpired.
Grobien was born to Johann Friedrich Grobien and Friedrike Dorothea Friccius. He married Malwine Helene Westendarp in 1875 in Hamburg. They had a son, Adolf Andre Grobien (b. March 12, 1876, Hong Kong – d. November 8, 1952, Cali, Colombia), who married Marie Franciska Albercht in January 4, 1901 in Bremen. There was a Oskar Fritz Grobien (b. June 12, 1873, Hong Kong – d. unknown), who was the manorial owner of Klein Krankow of Grevesmühlen in the German region of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and husband of Emma Charlotte Marianne Lurman (married on November 22, 1900). I would be interested in finding out if Oskar was related to Fritz.
- familysearch.org [internet].
- London and China Telegraph, June 24, 1873, Page 4, China, Hong Kong.
24. Lai Shang, alias Lai Chek Kun (Chinese), Ordinance No.8 of 1888, naturalized on February 28, 1888.
25. Lai Kit, alias Lai Cheuk (Chinese), Ordinance No.9 of 1888, naturalized on February 21, 1888.
26. John Wong Chung, alias Wong Yiu Shang (Chinese), Ordinance No.20 of 1888, naturalized on November 16, 1888.
27. Tam Iu-tsun, alias Tam Fuk-siu (Chinese), Ordinance No.21 of 1888, naturalized on November 16, 1888.
28. Li O-mi, alias Li Tai Fung (Chinese), Ordinance No.22 of 1888, naturalized on November 16, 1888.
29. Elias Issac Elias, alias Elias Issac Elias Zachariah, Ordinance No.28 of 1888, naturalized on Augsut 12, 1889.
30. Li Man Hi, alias Pokshan (Chinese), Ordinance No.20 of 1889, naturalized on July 25, 1889.
31. Leung Shu, alias Leung Un, alias Leung Yuk, alias Yuk Shang (Chinese), Ordinance No.31 of 1889, naturalized on January 5, 1891.
32. Lam Neung-shing, alias Lam Yuk Po (Chinese), Ordinance No.2 of 1890, naturalized on March 29, 1890.
33. Lai Sui Tong (Chinese), Ordinance No.1 of 1891, naturalized on October 20, 1897.
34. Choi Wai, alias Choi Tsun (Chinese), Ordinance No.2 of 1891, naturalized on February 24, 1891.
35. Lau Sai, alias Lau Wai-chun (Chinese), Ordinance No.5 of 1891, naturalized on March 11, 1901.
36. Meyer Fredericks, Ordinance No.8 of 1893, naturalized on July 4, 1893.
37. Samuel Donnenberg (Austrian), Ordinance No.15 of 1895, naturalized on June 15, 1895.
Samuel Donnenberg (b. October 21, 1877, Austria – d. April 5, 1938, Hong Kong) was an Austrian Jew who came to Hong Kong in the 1890s. He worked for the curio art dealers, Kuhn & Komor (1897-1919), which was owned by Hungarian Jew Isidor Komor (the proprietor of the firm Komor & Komor 康茂洋行 (est. 1869) in the same line of business, the firm was at one time located on the ground floor of the Alexandra Building in Central), and his cousin Arthur Kuhn (who also owned a curio firm Kuhn & Co. (est. 1867), until 1898, in Hong Kong, Yokohama and Kobe. He left K.&K. in 1898 and worked briefly for the import/export firm, W. Tallers in Kobe; he rejoined K.&K. in 1899 in Yokohama. He married Emily Grunstein in Hong Kong on November 25, 1900; she joined him in Yokohama after their wedding. In 1901, Donnenberg became a K.&K. partner and moved to Shanghai to take care of its branch operation. He moved again the following year to Singapore to open a shop at Raffles Place, and another one in 1907 in Adis Building, which is still running today. Based in Singapore, he had charge of the business in India and the Malay Peninsula. Donnenberg was in India at the onset of the Great War; he had his Germanic surname changed to Dunn to further anglicize himself. He returned to Hong Kong probably after the War where he stayed until he died in 1938. He was buried in the Jewish Cemetery in Happy Valley. Donnenberg (Dunn) was survived by his wife, Emily.1896
I was able to find the minutes of the Legislative Council meeting on June 6, 1895, in which the ordinance of Donnenberg's naturalization was read and passed.
The Acting Attorney-General (A.G. Wise)―I beg to move the first reading of a Bill entitled "An Ordinance for the naturalization of Samuel Donnenberg." This gentleman wishes to become a volunteer, and you will notice that the Bill is confined to Hongkong.
The Colonial Secretary (J.H. Stewart Lockhart)―I beg to second.
Bill read the first time, carried through all its stages, and passed.
- Meiji Portraits [internet].
- Meeting Minutes, Meeting of the Legislative Council on June 6, 1895.
- London and China Telegraph, January 2, 1901, p.7, Marriages.
- Wright, Arnold , Twentieth century impressions of British Malaya: Its History, People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources, London: Lloyd's Greater Britain Publishing Co., Ltd., 1908.
38. Lee Shew (Chinese), Ordinance No.9 of 1896, naturalized on July 22, 1896.
39. Ho Mui-sz, alias Ho Lin-shing (Chinese), Ordinance No.14 of 1897, naturalized on September 13, 1897.
40. U Hoi-chau, alias U Chiu-tsun (Chinese), Ordinance No.20 of 1897, naturalized on November 22, 1897.
41. Wong Chuk-yau, alias Wong Mau, alias Wong Sun-in (Chinese), Ordinance No.2 of 1898, naturalized on May 18, 1898.
42. Leung P'ui Chi, alias Leung Chak-chang, alias Leung Chung (Chinese), Ordinance No.5 of 1898, naturalized on May 18, 1898.
43. Chau Tung-shang (Chinese), Ordinance No.7 of 1898, naturalized on August 22, 1898.
44. Tong Yuk, alias Tong Lai-ts'un (Chinese), Ordinance No.8 of 1898, naturalized on August 15, 1898.
45. Chan Li-choy, alias Chan Chun-chuen (Chinese), Ordinance No.19 of 1898, naturalized on September 8, 1898.
Tong Yuk, alias Tong Lai Ts'un, alias Tong Lai Chuen, was a native of Heung Shan 廣東香山 (present day Zhongshan, Guangdong). He was compradore for Hotz s'Jacob & Co. 好時洋行 (renamed Holland China Handels Compagnie in 1902) after working in the same capacity for the Hong Kong office of the Bombay merchant, Petit & Co. His father ran a successful trading business in Hong Kong and Macau, with close ties with tea firms in Macau such as Yun Loong. Tong, a Hong Kong resident since ca.1875, owned considerable amount of properties including his residence at Nos. 67 and 69 Wyndham Street 雲咸街. He was very active in community services serving in the committees of the Tung Wah Hospital and the Po Leung Kuk for a number of years. He was listed a a member of the Typhoon Fund committee in 1906, as well as the District Watchmen's committee. Tong was appointed a Justice of the Peace in 1905.
Tong Yuk, JP
- Wright, Arnold (Ed.), Twentieth Century Impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and Other Treaty Ports of China, London: Lloyd's Greater Britain Publishing Co., Ltd., 1908.
46. Lo Chung-pak, alias Lo Yuen-poon, alias Lo Shau-u (Chinese), Ordinance No.23 of 1898, naturalized on September 24, 1898.
47. Leung Luk, alias Leung Cheung-soy (Chinese), Ordinance No.25 of 1898, naturalized on September 27, 1898.
48. Li Chung, alias Li Chan-shing, Ordinance No.26 of 1898, naturalized on September 22, 1898.
49. Un Chung-wo, alias Un Oi-u, alias Un Hi, alias Un Kwok-hi (Chinese), Ordinance No.29 of 1898, naturalized on February 25, 1901.
50. Wong Shu-tong, alias Wong Ka-yau, alias Wong Wing-kwan (Chinese), Ordinance No.31 of 1898, naturalized on January 9, 1899.
51. Mak Ngan-wan, alias Mak Chiu-ki, alias Mak Sui-nin, alias Mak Yat-wo, alias Mak Sun (Chinese), Ordinance No.5 of 1899, naturalized on March 7, 1899.
52. Tsoi Yeuk-shan (Chinese), Ordinance No.14 of 1899, naturalized on August 12, 1899.
53. Fan Ngan, alias Fan Sau, alias Fan Pat-shan, alias Fan Tun-shin (Chinese), Ordinance No.15 of 1899, naturalized on August 11, 1899.
54. Wong Ping-lam, alias Wong U-kai (Chinese), Ordinance No.18 of 1899, naturalized on February 25, 1901.
55. Yeung Cheuk-hin, alias Yeung Shun-kong (Chinese), Ordinance No.19 of 1899, naturalized on March 11, 1801.
56. Sin Hip-pan, alias Sin Shu-fan, alias Sin Shiu-kin, Sin Ping-kim (Chinese), Ordinance No.24 of 1899, naturalized on November 9, 1899.
57. Kwok Yung-kam, alias Kwok To-kai, alias Kwok Ying (Chinese), Ordinance No.25 of 1899, naturalized on November 6, 1899.
58. Ho Shun-to, alias Ho Kwan-yuk, alias Ho Ping-un, alias Ho Tsoi (Chinese), Ordinance No.26 of 1899, naturalized on November 6, 1899.
59. Hu Choo, alias Hu Shun-tsun, alias Hu Ping-fong, alias Hu Nai-kwai, Ordinance No.27 of 1899, naturalized on November 6, 1899.
60. Lo Kun-ting, alias Lo Fo, alias Lo Ching-chiu, alias Lo Tin-fui (Chinese), Ordinance No.28 of 1899, naturalized on November 6, 1899.
61. Wan Kam-ting, alias Wan Tsing-kai, alias Wan Ming-kap (Chinese), Ordinance No.1 of 1900, naturalized on April 19, 1900.
62. Capitolino Joao Xavier (Portuguese), Ordinance No.3 of 1900, naturalized on April 19, 1900.
63. Foo Sik, alias Foo Yik-pang (Chinese), Ordinance No.4 of 1900, naturalized on April 19, 1900.
64. Leung Shek-chiu, alias Leung Foon-man, alias Leung-Kin, Ordinance No.13 of 1900, naturalized on July 9, 1900.
65. Wei Lun-shek, alias Wei Chu, alias Wei Shiu-wing, alias Wei Yau-ying (Chinese), Ordinance No.22 of 1900, naturalized on September 4, 1900.
66. Chan Ping-hung, alias Chan Shek-shan (Chinese), Ordinance No.34 of 1900, naturalized on January 31, 1901.
67. Lau Yat Ts'un, alias Lau Ng, alias Lau Man-kwong, Alias Lau Ng-wo, alias Lau Hok-wai (Chinese), Ordinance No.12 of 1901.
Lau, a managing partner for thirty years of the Kung Yuen firm at No. 112 Wing Lok Street 永樂街, was a rice merchant, and a director of Po On Marine Insurance and Godown Company. A native of Sha Chung Village, San Ui, in Guangzhou, he had continuously resided in Hong Kong for over thirty eight years.
- TO BE COMPLETED -(p) Pinyin Romanization
References (for the post):
- British Nationality: Summary, Home Office, UK Border Agency [internet].
- Historical Laws of Hong Kong Online, HKU Libraries [internet].
- Historical Laws of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Legal Information Institute [internet].
- Parry, Clive, British Nationality Law and the History of Naturalization, Milan: Giuffrè, 1954.